Back pain - types, causes, symptoms, treatment

According to statistics, back pain is very common. This is confirmed by the fact that about 80% of the population at least once in their lives experience discomfort in the belt zone. It is also known that one of the leading symptoms of a wide range of diseases is back pain. Some experts believe that discomfort in this part of the spine is a kind of human punishment for walking straight.

pain in the lower back

In most cases, even if the pain in the lower back is not severe or intermittent, and is seen from time to time, people are reluctant to pay attention to it and see a doctor. As a result, unpleasant feelings usually increase and become chronic. During the meeting with the specialist, it became clear that the cause of concern was a serious illness that required surgical treatment.

As a rule, acute back pain eventually becomes permanent. According to neurologists, recurrence occurs in 40% of patients within the next year after recovery, and in the long term, anxiety returns in 85% of patients.

Types of back pain

For some people, back problems become so common that they do not pay attention to them. In general, discomfort in the lumbar region can be observed once in a person, and never occurs again.

And they can always come back, causing incredible suffering. However, even before consulting a doctor, it is possible to determine the symptoms of the pain syndrome and its localization from its origin.

There are five types of back pain:

  • local;
  • set out in;
  • reflected spondylogenic (pathological);
  • radical;
  • occurs as a result of muscle spasm.

Local and referenced back pain

Localization of pain syndrome occurs as a result of irritation or compression of sensitive nerve endings. Causes breakage, breakage or tension of sensitive fibers. Unpleasant sensations of a local nature that do not change strength when the body position changes indicate the presence of a spinal tumor or infection.

The source of the reflected pain felt in the lower back may be problems with the organs of the abdominal cavity or the small pelvis. Very often, but not always, the pain is localized in the abdomen, small pelvis, in addition to the lower back. When the spine moves, the discomfort does not increase, but there is no special relief.

Spondylogenous pain is felt in the lower back, inguinal area or anterior thigh during an injury to the upper back. When the pathological lower lumbar region is affected, the discomfort usually occurs in the hips, behind the thighs, and rarely in the calves or legs.

Acute and spasmodic pain

Classical discomfort in the lower spine of radicular origin is usually characterized by the severity of the manifestation and spreads to the legs.

Often, back pain during coughing causes coughing, sneezing or other tension in the tissues of the abdominal muscles. This is due to tension in the root or nerve that is affected in a particular position or movement of the body.

Thus, low back pain while sitting is caused by tension in the sciatic nerve (reaction roots L5 and S1) running along the back of the thigh. The nature of the senses generally does not allow to distinguish radical pain from non-radical pain. It is generally not clear what causes anxiety from muscle spasms. Pain occurs with various diseases of the spine. With a spasm, the spine bends, the deep muscles of the back tense, and a dull pain occurs.

Low back pain is often seen in pathology of the spine. In some cases, it can damage the kidneys, pancreas and lumbar muscles. The cause of pain is usually determined by a neurologist. If necessary, a therapist and orthopedist are involved.

Common causes of back pain

Doctors advise to pay attention to the unpleasant sensations in the lower back, first of all, it can be one of the symptoms of a number of serious diseases. The nature of the manifestation of lumbar syndrome depends solely on the causes. Only a specialist can determine the "source" of pain and what disease in the lumbar region can cause discomfort.

Causes of persistent back pain:

  • cholelithiasis;
  • pancreatitis;
  • prostatitis;
  • inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs;
  • benign and malignant tumors of the pelvic organs;
  • gastric and duodenal ulcers;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • kidney stones or urinary tract infections.

Causes of pain associated with the spine and back muscles

In medicine, a number of very rare spinal pathologies are known that can cause back syndrome. Ankylosing spondylitis is one of such diseases when the joints of the spine become inflamed. Also, pain in the spine in the lumbar region can lead to bacterial infection, osteomyelitis.

In 90% of cases, back syndrome is caused by various problems in the tissues of the spine and back muscles. In this regard, the most common causes of pain are:

  • degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the spine (osteochondrosis, deforming spondylosis, progressive osteoarthritis, herniated disc);
  • severe overload of the lumbar muscles;
  • complex fractures of the spine - traumatic or compression.

There is a separate psychosomatics in this list of reasons - in medicine, low back pain is caused by psychological problems. For example, not being able to find the real purpose, a very heavy burden (caring for a sick relative, a small child, family problems, etc. ). In this situation, working on yourself will help.

Motivating factors

In the case of a significant number of diseases of the spine and nerve roots, discomfort can be observed in the lumbar region.

However, these diseases can occur for a long time without manifestations. They only feel under the influence of certain factors. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate not only the unpleasant feelings, but also the underlying disease.

Factors that contribute to the formation of low back pain:

  • not knowing the rules of lifting weights;
  • insufficient physical activity;
  • hormonal imbalance;
  • use of uncomfortable furniture (chairs, armchairs, etc. );
  • wrong posture.

Hypothermia, changes in atmospheric pressure and magnetic storms can also cause back pain. In any case, irritation of the sensitive nerve roots of the spinal cord occurs. It can also be observed due to pathological deposits of calcium salts. Vertebral hernias, protrusions (protrusions of intervertebral discs) can also cause pain in the tailbone and lumbar region.

Back pain: symptoms

Every disease has its own symptoms, but the symptoms of lumbar syndrome appear depending on the cause of the discomfort in the lumbar region. For example, acute anxiety can be the result of renal colic. In this case, a person will not be able to find such a position of the body that will allow him to tolerate anxiety.

Pain in the lower back and groin is sometimes a reflection of the movement of a pebble from the renal pelvis to the ureter. When the fifth vertebra is displaced, pain with severe weakness can be felt not only in the lumbar region, but also in the hips and legs.

It is difficult for a person to move, because the syndrome only intensifies and becomes unbearable. The disease itself is called spondylolisthesis.

Middle-aged women often experience back pain after sleep, as well as morning weakness. In addition, there is immobility of the spine and discomfort along it. Such symptoms are characteristic of fibrosis. When the disease begins, the pain in the lower back during movement is very strong, because after inflammation, the fibrous connective tissue is very sensitive to the movement of the human body.

Lumbar syndrome deserves special attention, taking into account the sides of the body:

  • Pain in the right side of the lower back is a sign of problems in the genital area, as well as a signal of pathology of the right kidney, abdominal wall, intestines or appendicitis;
  • Anxiety on the left side of the lower back is a sign of diseases of the reproductive system, problems with the urinary tract, left kidney, hernias, intestines and abdominal wall.

Treatment of low back pain

It happens that the pain in the lower back with a cold, as well as for other reasons, is so severe that it is impossible to do without therapy. Regardless of the cause of the attack, it is recommended to stay in bed for the first few days. If the discomfort in the lower part of the spine is caused by a sprain, then a heating pad or hot bath will help improve well-being. In case of serious injury, seek medical advice immediately.

Conservative therapy

Irritant ointments, as well as mustard plasters or pepper plasters, will help to warm the local lumbar area in the most painful area.

An electric heating pad, a bag of heated sand, applying leech will bring relief and wrap with a warm woolen scarf. Warm compresses help well with myositis.

Depending on which parallel symptoms are observed, low back pain can be relieved with electroprosure: diadynamic currents, transcutaneous electroanalgesia, sinusoidal modulated currents, electrophoresis with novocaine, etc. Reflexology (acupuncture, cauterization, electroacupuncture, laser therapy), including novocaine blockers, will help relieve anxiety.

With sciatica provoked by the displacement of the intervertebral discs, traction therapy is prescribed - stretching the body in a bed or under water. Similar procedures are performed in a hospital setting. Balneotherapy is also considered effective. These are radon, sulfide, chloride, sodium, turpentine, iodine-bromine baths, low-temperature mud applications, naphthalene.

Rubbing with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs is quite effective in lumbar syndrome. The pain can be relieved and the affected area can be irrigated with ethyl chloride.


The installation of external support systems - orthoses - is no less important in the elimination of lumbar syndrome and the prevention of its attacks.

At the doctor's discretion, it can be a corset, semi-corset, posture corrector or reclinator (a special corset that eliminates bending), bandage. Sometimes belts are recommended: corset, anti-radiculitis, elastic, etc.

Only one universal remedy will help relieve back pain after sitting and prevent the development of back syndrome - physiotherapy exercises (or yoga - a set of exercises that improve health). It is important to monitor your posture while sitting and do light exercises while flexing your lower back. Massage will help a lot. It will relieve muscle spasms and provide the muscles with the necessary tone.

In general, there can be various causes of back pain. It is important not to ignore the symptoms and go to the clinic on time. Prophylaxis prolongs the effect of treatment. Therefore, you should not carry heavy weights and follow the doctor's recommendations. Then, perhaps, the pain in the lower back will never manifest itself again.