Osteochondrosis is a disease in which degenerative and dystrophic processes affect the tissues of the spine. A person damages the intervertebral discs, as well as the surfaces of the joints and the vertebra itself. There are different treatments for osteochondrosis. And they are associated with a specific area of the spine where the disease develops.
Bone tissue and ligaments are most affected during the development of the disease. It should be noted that a person notes the development of the disease only when the appearance of pain, a violation of the level of sensitivity, atrophy of muscle tissue, as well as the malfunction of internal organs.
Osteochondrosis is an unpleasant disease, especially the stage is very severe. The disease is not easy to eliminate. In this case, it is very important not to delay treatment and choose the most effective method.
Today, more than half of the world's population suffers from this disease. Osteochondrosis mainly affects people aged 35-40 years. Therefore, effective treatment of osteochondrosis is the key to a healthy spine and spine.
The process of disease development
Osteochondrosis develops gradually, so it has several stages of development.
The first stage
This stage begins with dehydration of the pulposus nucleus. This part of the spinal disc is disturbed, cracks appear in the ring. At this stage, the disease does not progress beyond the affected disc.
The second stage
It is characterized by the approach of tightening the muscle corset due to improper placement of the disc. Therefore, the muscles and ligaments begin to sag, which leads to excessive mobility of adjacent vertebrae. There is a displacement of the vertebrae relative to each other, so spondylolisthesis develops.
The third stage
It is characterized by the strongest changes that occur in the vertebral discs. The formation of disc prolapses begins, damage is observed in the articular apparatus of the musculoskeletal system, subluxations occur, osteoarthritis develops.
The fourth stage
This stage of the disease is associated with changes in the affected areas that the body is trying to get used to. At this stage, the body tries to cope with the excessive mobility of the spine to maintain vital functions, to activate the spine. Thus, bone joints begin to grow on the surface of the vertebrae, which causes damage to the nerve endings. After that, the vertebrae are immobilized and the manifestations of the disease occur internally.
Diagnosis of the disease
To determine the necessary methods of treatment of osteochondrosis, a correct and comprehensive diagnosis is needed, which allows to determine in which sector the disease develops and for what reasons. Depending on the focus of the disease, there are the following types of osteochondrosis:
- cervical - is characterized by pain in the upper extremities and shoulder girdle, an example of manifestations are headaches that turn into arterial migraine, tinnitus.
- Chest - pain syndrome is localized in the chest, the pain affects the peritoneum and other internal organs of the chest.
- lumbosacral - is accompanied by lower back pain that spreads to the lower extremities and sacrum, in addition, there may be a loss of sensitivity of the muscle fibers of the affected area.
- The combination of several types of osteochondrosis is common in medical practice, so a comprehensive treatment of osteochondrosis is required to prevent many complications.
Treatment and its types
There are two types of treatment for osteochondrosis - conservative and surgical. The use of one or another type depends entirely on the severity and stage of development of the disease. In addition, the internal reserves of the condition of the organs and the vitamin base in the body are very important for the healing process.
It should be noted that the treatment of osteochondrosis is important as a conservative approach, as well as a comprehensive approach, taking into account the subsequent rehabilitation period. It is based on the simultaneous use of several therapy methods. Modern medicine divides conservative treatment into two main components: the use of drug treatment and treatment with the help of hardware. However, it should be noted that both of these types do not take into account the body's own forces for recovery, and treatment takes place as if the patient was not there. This is why it takes longer to heal, and sometimes the treatment of osteochondrosis can be useless.
Conservative treatment of osteochondrosis, as well as the rehabilitation period consists of several methods for the treatment of diseases:
- a set of health-improving exercises;
- isometric kinesiotherapy;
- manual treatment;
- massage and hydromassage;
- spinal traction treatment;
- treatment of osteochondrosis by stimulation methods;
- ultrasound and laser treatment;
- mobilization-vacuum therapy;
- diet and proper nutrition;
- therapy aimed at restoring and maintaining the psyche;
- drug treatment.
It is important to note that, for example, in acute attacks of the course of the disease, a large number of different medical methods and techniques are chosen correctly, in minimal amounts.
However, drug treatment is still necessary, so drug treatment of osteochondrosis may include:
- painkillers - to take various analgesics and painkillers;
- suppression of inflammation - taking drugs aimed at eliminating inflammatory processes at the sites of disease localization;
- antispasmodics - drugs designed to suppress muscle spasms;
- antioxidants - to take products with high amounts of vitamins;
- activation of blood microcirculation;
- psychedelic - to provide medication for a normal psychological condition.
Surgical treatment of osteochondrosis is used in cases where a person may lose his ability to work due to the progressive development of the disease. Before deciding on surgery, it is necessary to undergo a thorough examination and consult a specialist.
It is important to know that all patients suspected of developing osteochondrosis are referred for MRI. If this test shows that there are abnormalities in the body, the doctor may suggest surgery. However, in most cases, surgery is not prescribed unless a person complains of severe pain.
Surgical treatment of osteochondrosis is necessary in two cases:
- if a person has a ponytail;
- if a person is unable to control the process of urination and defecation.
Cauda equina syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system of the lower spine. That is, there is a bifurcation of nerve roots in the spinal cord. At the same time, if a person experiences pain during palpation of nerve endings, surgery cannot be avoided.
He will note that surgery for osteochondrosis occurs in two stages. Specialists first eliminate the cause of the pain, and then apply methods to stabilize the spine. If they speak medical language, decompression and stabilization operations are performed simultaneously. The methodology of surgical treatment may be different. The choice of a particular method depends only on the individual condition of the disease and mainly on the choice of the surgeon.